Bernd Wittenbrink

Implicit Measures

Implicit Measures of Attitudes

Bernd Wittenbrink & Norbert Schwarz (Eds.)
Guilford Press

Increasingly used in social and behavioral science research, implicit measures aim to assess attitudes that respondents may not be willing to report directly, or of which they may not even be aware. This timely book brings together leading investigators to review currently available procedures and offer practical recommendations for their implementation and interpretation. The theoretical bases of the various approaches are explored and their respective strengths and limitations are critically examined. The volume also discusses current controversies facing the field and highlights promising avenues for future research.


Mahzarin R. Banaji, PhD, Department of Psychology, Harvard University

John A. Bargh, PhD, Department of Psychology, Yale University

Galen V. Bodenhausen, PhD, Department of Psychology, Northwestern University

John T. Cacioppo, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Chicago

Frederica R. Conrey, PhD, Department of Psychology, Indiana University

Jan De Houwer, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Ghent

Melissa J. Ferguson, PhD, Department of Psychology, Cornell University

Bertram Gawronski, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario

Anthony G. Greenwald, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Washington

Tiffany A. Ito, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder

Kristin A. Lane, MS, Department of Psychology, Harvard University

Agnes Moors, PhD, Fund for Scientific Research

Brian A. Nosek, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia

Andreas Olsson, PhD, Department of Psychology, Columbia University

Elizabeth A. Phelps, PhD, Department of Psychology, New York University

Klaus Rothermund, PhD, Department of Psychology, Universität Trier

Norbert Schwarz, DrPhil, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

Denise Sekaquaptewa, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan

Eliot R. Smith, PhD, Department of Psychology, Indiana University

Patrick T. Vargas, PhD, Department of Advertising, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

William von Hippel, PhD, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales

Dirk Wentura, PhD, Department of Psychology, Saarland University

Bernd Wittenbrink, PhD, Center for Decision Research, University of Chicago


1. Introduction
Bernd Wittenbrink and Norbert Schwarz

I. Procedures and Their Implementation

2. Measuring Attitudes through Priming
Bernd Wittenbrink

3. Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: IV: What We Know (So Far) about the Method
Kristin A. Lane, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Brian A. Nosek, and Anthony G. Greenwald

4. Armed Only with Paper and Pencil: “Low-Tech” Measures of Implicit Attitudes
Patrick T. Vargas, Denise Sekaquaptewa, and William von Hippel

5. Attitudes as Mental and Neural States of Readiness: Using Physiological Measures to Study Implicit Attitudes
Tiffany A. Ito and John T. Cacioppo

6. Understanding Social Evaluations: What We Can (and Cannot) Learn from Neuroimaging
Andreas Olsson and Elizabeth A. Phelps

II. Critical Perspectives

7. How to Define and Examine the Implicitness of Implicit Measures
Jan De Houwer and Agnes Moors

8. Paradigms We Live By: A Plea for More Basic Research on the Implicit Association Test
Dirk Wentura and Klaus Rothermund

9. Beyond the Attitude Object: Implicit Attitudes Spring from Object-Centered Contexts
Melissa J. Ferguson and John A. Bargh

10. Mental Representations Are States, Not Things: Implications for Implicit and Explicit Measurement
Eliot R. Smith and Frederica R. Conrey

11. What Do We Know about Implicit Attitude Measures and What Do We Have to Learn?
Bertram Gawronski and Galen V. Bodenhausen

The study of implicit attitudes is the most significant development in attitude theory and research in recent years. This timely volume features analyses by the major contributors to this important development. The chapter authors skillfully present both the promise and the uncertainties of the many implicit measures that have been proposed. This book is essential reading not only for attitude researchers, but also for all researchers who wish to understand whether they should incorporate implicit measures into their studies.

Alice H. Eagly

Professor of Psychology, Northwestern University

This volume presents a scholarly yet very accessible treatment of these new measures, describing them in detail and evaluating their merits. Additionally, the volume shows how these measurement advances have permitted us to address new and fundamental issues about the nature of human judgment. This is a superb, integrative treatment of a major advance in the social and behavioral sciences. I will certainly use it as a text in my social psychology graduate proseminar; it is also likely to be used in advanced undergraduate courses devoted to attitudes, judgment, and assessment.

Charles M. Judd

Professor of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder

This is a book for serious students and practitioners of attitudes research. It offers comprehensive coverage of the new wave of implicit measures, written by some of the top researchers in the field. The chapters provide strong theoretical grounding as well as practical information on the ‘how-tos’ of each measure.

Jeffrey W. Sherman

Professor of Psychology, University of California, Davis

In recent years, no development in the social sciences has been more exciting than the discovery of implicit attitudes and the pursuit of their measurement… What more could a group of scientists hope for than to make such great progress, and at such a rapid rate? This wonderful book offers a terrific review of these accomplishments and identifies the challenges with which implicit attitude researchers will be grappling in the years to come.

Jon A. Krosnick

Frederic O. Glover Professor in Humanities and Social Sciences, Stanford University

Wittenbrink and Schwarz drew together a distinguished group of authors whose expertise concerns how best to examine the interrelations among attitudes, social judgements, and behaviors… Reader-researchers should consider this book a valuable resource, one that nicely characterizes current views on simple as well as complex measures of implicit attitudes.

Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

Wittenbrink and Schwarz have assembled an impressive group of experts on attitude measurement… I would highly recommend this book for anyone thinking about incorporating the use of implicit attitude measures into his or her research and feel that the book would make an excellent addition to any graduate-level course on attitudes or attitude measurement.


© Bernd Wittenbrink • University of Chicago Booth School of Business